The study found that “motherF………” was used 678 times more often in the mid-2000s than the early 1950s, occurrences of “s..t” multiplied 69 times, and “f..k” was 168 times more frequent.
Led by Jean Twenge, author and psychology professor at San Diego State University, the team analysed the titles making up the Google Books corpus of American English books published between 1950 and 2008, looking for uses of the words “s..t”, “”, “f..k”, “c..t”, “c……r”, “motherfr”, and other curse words”.
Overall, they found that writers were “significantly more likely to use swearwords in the years since 1950”, with books published in 2005-2008 28 times more likely to include swearwords than books published in the early 1950s. The paper that was publishefd“American culture increasingly values individual self-expression and weaker social taboos, and these trends are manifested in the increasing use of swearwords.”
Twenge and her fellow authors, graduate student Hannah Van Landingham and University of Georgia psychology professor W Keith Campbell, link the rise of profanities in US literature to the increasingly individualistic nature of the country’s culture, as well as the relaxation of societal taboos.
April 1st, 2017, bibliophiles, book artists, and food lovers around the world gather to celebrate the book arts where participants create an “edible book,” which can be inspired by a favorite tale, involve a pun on a famous title, or simply be in the shape of a book (or scroll, or tablet, etc). All entries will be exhibited, documented, then EATEN! Photographs of all edible books will appear in the Edible Book Festival gallery.
The Champaign-Urbana Edible Book Festival is sponsored by the University Library and Common Ground Coop, and supported by the generous help of campus and community volunteers and prize donors.
Best Collaborative Creation,
|Catcher in the Rye, by Cathy Blake and Craig Evans
Alice in Wonderland
Created by Shilpi Saxena
Created by Jen-chien Yu and Adelaide Kota
Smell sampling equipment on Ihesus: The Floure of the Commaundementes of God, printed in London by Wyken de Worde (1521) at the Morgan Library & Museum in New York (photo by Christine Nelson)
Carlos Benaim, master perfumer from International Flavors and Fragrances smelling one of J. P. Morgan’s Pedro Murias Cuban cigars (photo by Christine Nelson)
The sampling equipment on a leather-bound copy of The Golden Legend, printed in London by Wyken de Worde (1521) (photo by Christine Nelson)