Posts tagged ‘History’
Sally Hemings- Slave to Thomas Jefferson
Stagecoach Mary, Mary Fields, was born a slave in 1832, and was the first African-American woman employed as a mail carrier in the U.S., driving her mail route by stagecoach from Cascade to St. Peter’s Mission, Montana. In 1895, at 60 YO, she was hired since she was the fastest applicant to hitch a team of 6 horses. She never missed a day of work and during heavy snowfalls, had to deliver the mail on foot. After she retired, she became friends with actor, Gary Cooper.
Last queen of Hawaii. She was black.
Beechnut gum girl 1940s A Day In The Life represents History. We are looking for all ages, shapes and sizes, the key will be the authentic representation of history through photo story telling photography
circa late 1930s-early 1940s
HARRIET AND JOHN TUBMAN: The only photo held representing the likeness of Harriet’s first husband, John Tubman, a free black man of Maryland, killed after Harriet’s escape to freedom. Harriet’s age in photo is about 30 years. Around 1844, she married a free black man, John Tubman. Since she was a slave, there could be a chance that she could be sold; he reportedly told her that he would tell “massa” if she tried. Her goal to achieve freedom was too large for her to give up though. In 1849 she left her husband and escaped to Philadelphia
7th C. BC – Ketef Hinnom Scroll
In a tomb at Ketef Hinnom in Israel, the oldest text of the Hebrew Bible was discovered. The text, inscribed on a silver scroll in the old Hebrew script dating to the 7th Century B.C., is the Aaronic blessing (Numbers 6:24-26), which begins, “yeverekh’kha YHWH Vayishmarekha” (May Yahweh bless you and keep you).
The Library of Ashurbanipal
The world’s oldest known library was founded sometime in the 7th century B.C. for the “royal contemplation” of the Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. Located in Nineveh in modern day Iraq, the site included a trove of some 30,000 cuneiform tablets organized according to subject matter. Most of its titles were archival documents, religious incantations and scholarly texts, but it also housed several works of literature including the 4,000-year-old “Epic of Gilgamesh.” The book-loving Ashurbanipal compiled much of his library by looting works from Babylonia and the other territories he conquered.
The Library of Alexandria
After Alexander, the Great’s death in 323 B.C., control of Egypt fell to his former general Ptolemy I Soter, the Library of Alexandria, which eventually became the intellectual jewel the ancient world was established. Little is known about the site’s architecture, it may have included over 500,000 papyrus scrolls containing works of literature and texts on history, law, mathematics, and science. The library and its associated research institute attracted scholars from around the Mediterranean, many of whom lived on site and drew government stipends while they conducted research and copied its contents. At different times, the likes of Strabo, Euclid, and Archimedes were among the academics on site. The library’s demise is traditionally dated to 48 B.C., when it supposedly burned after Julius Caesar accidentally set fire to Alexandria’s harbor during a battle against the Egyptian ruler Ptolemy XIII.
The Library of Pergamum
Constructed in the third century B.C. by members of the Attalid dynasty, the Library of Pergamum, located in what is now Turkey, was once home to a treasure-trove of some 200,000 scrolls. It was housed in a temple complex devoted to Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, and is believed to have comprised four rooms—three for the library’s contents and another that served as a meeting space for banquets and academic conferences. According to the ancient chronicler Pliny the Elder, the Library of Pergamum eventually became so famous that it was considered to be in “keen competition” with the Library of Alexandria.
The Villa of the Papyri
The “Villa of the Papyri” is the only one whose collection has survived to the present day. It 1,800 scrolls were located in the Roman city of Herculaneum in a villa that was most likely built by Julius Caesar’s father-in-law, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus. When nearby Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D., the library was buried—and exquisitely preserved—under a 90-foot layer of volcanic material. Its blackened, carbonized scrolls were rediscovered in the 18th century. Modern researchers have since used everything from multispectral imaging to x-rays to try to read them. Much of the catalogue still waiting to be deciphered, however, studies have revealed that the library contains several texts by an Epicurean philosopher and poet named Philodemus.
The Libraries of Trajan’s Forum
The Emperor Trajan completed construction around 112 A.D.on a sprawling, multi-use building complex in the city of Rome. There were plazas, markets and religious temples, and also one of the Roman Empire’s most famous libraries. The site was technically two separate structures—one for works in Latin, and one for works in Greek. The rooms sat on opposite sides of a portico that housed Trajan’s Column, a large monument built to honor the Emperor’s military successes. Both sections were elegantly crafted from concrete, marble and granite, and they included large central reading chambers and two levels of bookshelf-lined alcoves containing an estimated 20,000 scrolls. Historians are unsure of when Trajan’s dual library ceased to exist, but it was still being mentioned in writing as late as the fifth century A.D., which suggests that it stood for at least 300 years.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: בעלי המסורה Ba’alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewishscribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in present-day Israel in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia
The Library of Celsus
There were over two-dozen major libraries in the city of Rome during the imperial era. Around 120 A.D., the son of the Roman consul Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus completed a memorial library to his father in the city of Ephesus (modern day Turkey). The building’s ornate façade still stands today and features a marble stairway and columns as well as four statues representing Wisdom, Virtue, Intelligence and Knowledge. The library may have held some 12,000 scrolls, but it most striking feature was no doubt Celsus himself, who was buried inside in an ornamental sarcophagus.
The Imperial Library of Constantinople
Even after the Western Roman Empire had gone into decline, classical Greek and Roman thought continued to flourish in Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. The city’s Imperial Library was created in the fourth century A.D. under Constantine the Great, but it remained relatively small until the fifth century, when its collection grew to a staggering 120,000 scrolls and codices. The size of the Imperial Library continued to demish for the next several centuries due to neglect and frequent fires, and it later suffered a devastating blow after a Crusader army sacked Constantinople in 1204. Nevertheless, its scribes and scholars are now credited with preserving countless pieces of ancient Greek and Roman literature by making parchment copies of deteriorating papyrus scrolls.
Modern day militants have reportedly ransacked Mosul library, burning over a hundred thousand rare manuscripts and documents spanning centuries of human learning.Initial reports said approximately 8,000 books were destroyed by the extremist group.
The Timbuktu Libraries
Around 60 libraries in Timbuktu are still owned by local families and institutions, collections that have survived political turbulence throughout the region, as well as the ravages of nature. A good example is the Ahmed Baba Institute, established in 1970, which was named after the famous 16th/17th-century scholar, the greatest in Africa.
Ahmed Baba wrote 70 works in Arabic, many on jurisprudence but some on grammar and syntax. Deported to Morocco after the Moroccan invasion of Songhay in 1591, he is said to have complained to the sultan there that the latter’s troops had stolen 1,600 books from him and that this was the smallest library compared to those of any of his friends.
Today, the Ahmed Baba Institute has nearly 30,000 manuscripts, which are being studied, catalogued and preserved. However, during the period of French colonial domination of Timbuktu (1894–1959), many manuscripts were seized and burned by the colonialists, and as a result, many families there still refuse access to researchers for fear of a new era of pillaging. Other manuscripts were lost due to adverse climatic conditions – for example, following droughts, many people buried their manuscripts and fled.
The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the “Chenoboskion Manuscripts”, or as the “Gnostic Gospels”) is a collection of Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. Twelve leather-boundpapyrus codices buried in a sealed jar were found by a local farmer named Muhammed al-Samman. The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic treatises, but they also include three works belonging to the Corpus Hermeticum and a partial translation/alteration of Plato‘s Republic. In his introduction to The Nag Hammadi Library in English, James Robinson suggests that these codices may have belonged to a nearby Pachomian monastery, and were buried after Saint Athanasius condemned the use of non-canonical books in his Festal Letter of 367 A.D. The discovery of these texts significantly influenced modern scholarship into early Christianity and Gnosticis
About 30,000 clay tablets found in ancient Mesopotamia date back more than 5,000 years. Archaelogists have uncovered papyrus scrolls from 1300-1200bc in the ancient Egyptian cities of Amarna and Thebes and thousands of clay tablets in the palace of King Sennacherib, Assyrian ruler from 704-681bc, at Nineveh, his capital city. More evidence turned up with the discovery of the personal collection of Sennacherib’s grandson, King Ashurbanipal.
Public and private libraries flourished through a well-established process: authors wrote on a variety of subjects, scriptoria or copy shops produced the books, and book dealers sold them.
The Great Library of Alexandria, a public library open to those with the proper scholarly and literary qualifications, founded about 300bc. When Egypt’s King Ptolemy I (305-282bc) asked, “How many scrolls do we have?”, Aristotle’s disciple Demetrius of Phalerum was on hand to answer with the latest count. After all, it was Demetrius who suggested setting up a universal library to hold copies of all the books in the world. Ptolemy and his successors wanted to understand the people under their rule and house Latin, Buddhist, Persian, Hebrew, and Egyptian works – translated into Greek.
Julius Caesar dreamed of establishing a public library in Rome, but his vision was cut short by his assassination. After Caesar’s death, Asinius Pollio acquired the necessary funds to make the dream a reality. The library was divided into two sections – one for Greek and one for Latin, serving as a model for subsequent Roman libraries. Great statues adorned the walls. Books, typically acquired through donations by authors and others, as well as through copying, were placed along the walls and readers consulted them in the middle of the room. This marked a distinct departure from the Greek model, where readers could only consult their books in an atrium away from the rest of the collection.
Founded circa 300bc, the Great Library of Alexandria was the most famed literary repository of the ancient world.
While most modern libraries spend more time and money on collections than ornamentation, some institutions, such as the Library of Congress, still aspire to ancient standards of architectural splendor
Ahmad al-Farghani, during the ninth century had calculated the width of one degree of longitude at the equator, from which he deduced the earth’s circumference.
Research from Wall Street 24/7 listed Washington as the wealthiest president of all time, with assets worth more than $500 million.
1. The Founding Fathers penned the first couple of drafts of the Declaration of Independence on hemp paper, since at the time at least 75 percent of all the world’s paper was made from cannabis hemp fiber. The democratic delegates eked out the document’s first and second drafts—completed on June 28th and July 2nd 1776, respectively—on Dutch hemp paper. The final document had a more official air, though, as it was printed on parchment
The Democratic Party’s donkey symbol was adopted in 1828, when, during an election, Andrew Jackson’s opponents called him a jackass. The Republican Party’s elephant symbol was adopted in 1874 after satirical cartoonist Thomas Nast drew an elephant, labeling it “the Republican vote.”
Washington was a savvy businessman who owned one of the largest distilleries in 18th century America, and by 1799 alone he was producing 11,000 gallons of whiskey. In 1797 George Washington’s farm manager, a Scot named James Anderson, convinced his employer that producing whiskey made from corn and rye grown on the plantation would be a natural complement to his milling business. Washington erected the 2,250 square foot distillery, making it among the largest whiskey distilleries in early America. Today, the two-story stone distillery is reconstructed and operates seasonally, mashing, fermenting and distilling grain as it was done in the eighteenth century.
Eko and Iko were the sideshow stage names of George and Willie Muse, the grandsons of former slaves.